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Understand the symptoms, diagnosis process, and latest treatments for prostate cancer.

Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatments

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that affects a small, walnut-shaped gland called the prostate, which is located below the bladder in men. It’s one of the most common cancers among men, especially those over 65 years old.

While we don’t know exactly what causes prostate cancer, some factors like age, race, family history, and lifestyle choices can increase a man’s risk of developing it. While some risk factors can’t be controlled, living a healthy lifestyle and getting regular screenings can help catch prostate cancer early, which improves the chances of successful treatment.

In this blog, we’ll focus on the symptoms that may indicate prostate cancer, the different diagnostic tests used to detect it, and the various treatment options available for managing this type of cancer. Our goal is to provide you with a comprehensive understanding of prostate cancer so you can be better informed and prepared.

What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer arises when cells in the prostate gland start to grow and divide uncontrollably. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized gland located just below the bladder in men. Its main function is to produce seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. As men age, the prostate can become enlarged, which is a non-cancerous condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, when prostate cells develop genetic mutations, they can turn cancerous.

In its early stages, prostate cancer usually doesn’t cause any symptoms. As the cancer grows larger, it may cause difficulties with urination such as a weak or interrupted flow, a frequent urge to urinate (especially at night), difficulty starting urination, or inability to urinate. Other symptoms can include blood in the urine or semen, erectile dysfunction, pelvic area discomfort or pain in the bones. Importantly, these symptoms can also indicate other prostate conditions besides cancer. Only a doctor can accurately diagnose prostate cancer through tests like a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test or a prostate biopsy.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

In the early stages, prostate cancer typically doesn’t cause any noticeable symptoms. However, as the disease progresses, you may experience some of the following:

Urinary Issues

  • Difficulty starting or stopping your urine stream
  • A weak or interrupted urine flow
  • An urgent need to urinate frequently, especially at night
  • A feeling that your bladder doesn’t fully empty

Blood in Urine or Semen

While not always present, some men with prostate cancer notice blood in their urine or semen, which can be a concerning sign.

Erectile Dysfunction

The tumor can interfere with sexual function like erectile dysfunction, leading to trouble getting or keeping an erection.

Pain or Discomfort

In later stages, you may feel pain or discomfort in the pelvic area, lower back, or when sitting for long periods.

It’s important to remember that these symptoms don’t necessarily mean you have prostate cancer. They can also be caused by non-cancerous conditions like an enlarged prostate. If you experience any of these issues, make an appointment with your doctor for an accurate diagnosis.

Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

If you experience any potential prostate cancer symptoms, it’s crucial to get checked out by your doctor. Early detection provides the best chance for successful treatment. There are a few different tests that may be used to diagnose prostate cancer:

PSA Blood Test

This measures the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein produced by prostate cells. Higher PSA levels can indicate prostate cancer, though elevated PSA can also be caused by less serious conditions.

Digital Rectal Exam

Your doctor will insert a gloved finger into the rectum to feel for any abnormalities in the size, shape, or texture of the prostate gland.


If initial tests raise concerns, your doctor may recommend a biopsy to sample prostate tissue for cancer cells. This is usually done by inserting hollow needles through the rectum to extract small prostate samples.

Imaging Tests

These may include ultrasounds, CT scans, MRIs, or bone scans to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the prostate.

Don’t panic if you’re sent for additional testing. Many prostate issues end up being non-cancerous. But it’s better to be thorough and rule out any potentially serious problems early on when prostate cancer is most treatable. Be open with your doctor about any symptoms and let them guide you through the diagnostic process.

Treatments for Prostate Cancer

If diagnosed with prostate cancer, there are a variety of treatment options available depending on the specifics of your case. Your doctor will consider factors like the cancer’s stage and aggressiveness, your age, overall health, and personal preferences.

Active Surveillance

For some men with low-risk, slow-growing prostate cancers, active surveillance may be recommended. This involves closely monitoring the cancer through regular PSA tests, biopsies, and imaging – but no immediate treatment. Treatment would only begin if the cancer started becoming more aggressive.


A prostatectomy, or surgical removal of the prostate gland, is a common option for localized prostate cancer. This can be done through traditional open surgery or minimally invasive techniques like robotic-assisted surgery.

Radiation Therapy

This treatment uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. It can be delivered externally with a machine or internally by implanting radioactive seeds directly into the prostate.

Hormone Therapy

Prostate cancer often relies on male hormones like testosterone to grow and spread. Hormone therapy drugs work by lowering testosterone levels to starve the cancer cells.


For advanced or metastatic prostate cancers, chemotherapy may be used to target cancer cells throughout the body. It’s often combined with other treatments like hormone therapy.

Targeted Therapy

These newer drugs, like enzalutamide and abiraterone, directly target specific molecules involved in prostate cancer’s growth and spread.


This emerging approach tries to harness the body’s own immune system to better recognize and attack prostate cancer cells.

There’s no one-size-fits-all treatment. Your doctor will work closely with you to put together a personalised plan aimed at effectively treating your cancer while minimizing side effects as much as possible. Having multiple options allows you to make informed decisions about what’s best for your specific situation.


A prostate cancer diagnosis can be incredibly difficult, but focusing on your overall well-being is so important during this journey. Seek out a support system, whether it’s close friends and family or a prostate cancer support group. Prioritize taking care of yourself mentally and physically by maintaining a healthy lifestyle with a proper diet, exercise as recommended by your doctor, and techniques like meditation to help manage stress.

Early detection is key for successful prostate cancer management and treatment. Don’t hesitate to discuss any potential symptoms or risk factors with your healthcare provider. Regular screenings, especially for men over 50 or those with additional risks, allow for catching prostate cancer early when it’s most treatable. While serious, incredible advancements have been made in treatment options and early detection methods, greatly improving outcomes.

Stay informed about your condition, follow your healthcare team’s guidance closely, and cultivate a positive mindset – you can navigate this with confidence. If you’re concerned about symptoms or your risk, take action right away. The experienced urologists and oncologists at Dispur PolyClinic & Hospitals provide comprehensive, cutting-edge prostate cancer care. Call +91 7670007615 or schedule an appointment online to take charge of your health with our compassionate team.

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dispur polyclinic logo

Book a free consultation Now !

Our Helpline no's

(+91) 8822669275
(+91) 7664011111
(+91) 7670007615